토요일, 7월 20, 2024
기타제품COFFEE, TEA, CHOCOLATE Were All Increasingly Widely Consumed

COFFEE, TEA, CHOCOLATE Were All Increasingly Widely Consumed

COFFEE, TEA, CHOCOLATE Were All Increasingly Widely Consumed

Coffee, tea, and chocolate were all increasingly widely consumed in nineteenth-century Europe. They had numerous apparent benefits: they offered appealing taste and stimulating effect (from the caffeine), yet they were not alcoholic. They were prepared with boiled water (which people understood made water safe), and were thought to have medicinal benefits. In contrast, the water in many cities was polluted and unfit to drink, which had led to high consumption of light beer or light wine. Londoners in the early nineteenth century had particularly bad water, which led to several outbreaks of waterborne illness and prompted London hospitals to serve only alcoholic beverages to their patients. Factory owners encouraged the drinking of tea or coffee rather than beer or wine because of the dangers associated with running machinery while intoxicated and perhaps because stimulants increased productivity. On the downside, coffee and tea replaced beverages that provided more nutrition. Chocolate, tea, and coffee were also associated with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe, because sugar lessened their bitterness. And as with any popular commodity, all were targeted for taxation by governments.

Coffee Originally from Ethiopia

Originally from Ethiopia, coffee was introduced to Europe by Italian traders in 1600. In the seventeenth century, coffee houses became important literary and political places, and they retained this character through the nineteenth century. The Spanish, having been chocolate drinkers since they introduced it from the Americas, were late to embrace coffee, and it was not until the nineteenth century that coffee houses began to prosper in Spain.

However, in France coffee was an essential beverage. Coffee was deemed so essential that in 1806, when Napoleon I (r. 1804–1814/1815) decided to make France self-sufficient (to cut Britain off from its European trade customers), he sought a substitute for coffee. Since coffee cannot grow in Europe, the French substituted the herb chicory during this period. When foreign policy changed, the French went back to true coffee, although sometimes mixed with chicory.

The medical qualities of coffee had been investigated since its entry into Europe. This inquiry continued in the 1800s, with some researchers praising its energizing effects and others deploring the stimulating aspects as upsetting the body’s natural balance. Caffeine was isolated in the 1820s, although not all critics of coffee’s healthfulness understood that caffeine was the active substance. By the late 1800s, it was clear that excessive consumption of coffee created a recognizable syndrome.

By the early 1900s, afternoon coffee became a customary occasion in Germany. The derogatory term Kaffeeklatsch was coined to describe women’s gossip at these affairs (although now the term simply refers to relaxed conversation https://bananadogstore.com/).

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